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Timber

Other Forest-Risk Commodities

Nigeria
Timber Risk Score
91.6
Timber Risk Profile
Higher Risk
Conflict State
Yes
Log Export Restriction
Yes
Other Timber Export Restrictions
Yes
Import Regulation
No
Legality Risks Click for details on legality risks

FRC LEGALITY RISKS

Nigeria’s production of forest-risk commodities is likely to increase in the future – the population is projected to grow from 206 million in 2020 to 400 million by 2050. More than half will live in urban areas with higher temperatures and more extreme weather events due to climate change. Agriculture in Nigeria constitutes 21 percent of its GDP, 36 percent of its employment, and is dominated by smallholders who own 0.5 hectares (ha) of land on average, many of whom live in poverty. Under these economic and demographic pressures, the forest reserves are at high risk of further encroachment by farmers, herders, loggers, and poachers. Political instability and continued use of forests by armed groups could also drive further deforestation. Forest law enforcement lacks capacity and resources, and there remains a lack of effective coordination between control of the wildlife trade, illegal logging, and sustainable forest management.

  • Nigeria’s forest area has decreased by 9% since 2000, including a 12% decrease in forest cover in protected areas, despite legal protections, highlighting the challenge of preventing illegal deforestation.
  • Agricultural conversion is the main driver of forest loss in Nigeria due to production of beef, millet, rice, cassava, and vegetables, which are mostly sold/consumed domestically.
  • Export-oriented cash crops, particularly wood products, cocoa, cashews, and sesame, are also associated with an elevated risk of illegal conversion.
  • Policies governing forest conversion and agricultural production are set by Nigeria’s 36 states and are not always publicly available, making it challenging to determine the applicable laws country wide.
  • Illegal conversion of forest for agriculture is not seen as a priority for law enforcement.
  • There are reports of violence tied to land grabbing and conversion and widespread reports of commodity theft across Nigeria.

Read more by downloading the Nigeria Timber Legality Risk Dashboard here.

Latest Updates Click for latest news from Nigeria
May 13, 2024
UNODC World Wildlife Crime Report 2024 case study on rosewood

UNODC’s 2024 World Wildlife Crime Report has a case study on the illegal trade in rosewood, with a focus on Nigeria. Major players in the case study include China, India, Singapore, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Brazil, Vietnam and Ghana.

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April 13, 2024
NEWSConservationist begs Nigerian govt for intervention as Chinese, others plunder Calabar forests

Local communities claim that  Chinese operators have been unable to provide information about their permits and/or concession agreements allegedly issued to them by the Forestry Commission authorising the logging of such immature trees, and authorities are not doing enough to enforce the law.

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March 5, 2024
UN Decries Illegal Trade and Transit of Illegal Wildlife and Rosewood

The UN has decried illegal trade in wildlife and forest products in Nigeria with little effective prosecution. The 2023 UNODC Organized Crime Threat Assessment for Nigeria revealed that Nigeria is a key transit hub and consolidation point for various forms of illegal trade in wildlife and forest products (including rosewood). These products are sourced both from Nigeria as well as other countries in the region including Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire and Benin Republic.

Other related news cites more than 1000 records between 2011 and 2020 indicating that Nigeria is a source, transit, or destination country, or that the offender was a Nigerian national. Nigeria deals on illegal wildlife, forest products – Blueprint Newspapers Limited

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March 1, 2024
Illegal mining in Nigeria

In spite of efforts of governments at various levels to diversify the economy, earn foreign exchange and create jobs, reports of illegal mining of solid minerals across many states of the federation are very disturbing. Data from the Ministry of Solid Minerals and Development show that illegal mining activities have continued to thrive in spite of government’s repeated threat to prosecute culprits.

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February 28, 2024
Kwara State Intensifies Crackdown on Illegal Charcoal Production, Seizes Lorries

Kwara State Government intensifies efforts to combat deforestation by cracking down on illegal charcoal production. The crackdown on illegal charcoal dealing poses significant challenges, given the lucrative nature of the trade and its deep roots in certain local communities.

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January 19, 2024
Mapping the diversity of land uses following deforestation across Africa

The first high-resolution (5 m) and continental-scale
mapping of land use following deforestation in Africa, including humid and dry forests.

 

Results show, not surprisingly,  that the causes of forest loss vary by region. In general, small-scale cropland is the
dominant driver of forest loss in Africa, with hotspots in Madagascar and DRC. In addition, commodity
crops such as cacao, oil palm, and rubber are the dominant drivers of forest loss in the humid forests of
western and central Africa, forming an “arc of commodity crops” in that region. At the same time, the
hotspots for cashew are found to increasingly dominate in the dry forests of both western and southeastern Africa, while larger hotspots for large-scale croplands were found in Nigeria and Zambia.

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November 6, 2023
Conservationists, CSOs, warn against Chinese incursion into Cross River forests

CONSERVATIONISTS, Civil Society Organisations, youth leaders and community elders, at the weekend, raised the alarm over the presence of Chinese in Effi community in the Cross River Reserved Forest area for undisclosed business.

 

Giving the warning on the platform of Coalition Against Illegal Logging and Mining in Cross River, CALAMA CRS, the stakeholders said after an intensive round table meeting in Calabar to x-ray the situation it became imperative to let the public know of what was going on.

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May 26, 2023
Cross River governor-elect urged to tackle deforestation

Environmental and ecology group, We The People, has charged the governor-elect of Cross River State, Senator Prince Bassey Otu, to take the issue of deforestation seriously, urging him to read the riot act to encroachers of the state’s forest reserves.

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May 19, 2023
Forest reserves: Ogun warns village heads against sharp practices

The Commissioner for Forestry, Ogun State, Mr Taiwo Oludotun, has warned village heads in the government-owned forest reserves not to indulge in unwholesome practices that may disrupt activities in the forests. He listed some of the unwholesome activities to include illegal felling of trees, destruction of trees for plantation of crops like cocoa, cola nut and illegal collection of flitches, noting that the unwholesome acts would no longer be allowed.

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May 9, 2023
C/River community decries illegal timber exploitation

Members of the forest community in Akamkpa local government area of Cross River have called on the state government to check the high level of timber exploitation alleged to be carried out by one Ezemac International Nigeria Limited.

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May 10, 2022
Edo PUWOV Apprehends Illegal Loggers, Urges Support to Protect Forest Reserves

Officials of the Edo State Public Works Volunteers (PUWOV) have apprehended a suspected syndicate of illegal wood loggers who were allegedly caught felling and transporting trees at the forest reserve in Imoga Community, Akoko-Edo Local Government Area of Edo State.

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May 4, 2022
Growing Concern As Niger Delta’s Rainforest, Others Are Disappearing

A key report just launched by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), an agency of the United Nations is showing that rainforests, including those of the Niger Delta, the polluted oil and gas basin of Nigeria, are fast disappearing.

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May 4, 2022
How Logging, Hunting, Farmers’ Encroachment Threaten Okomu National Park

The Okomu National Park located in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State was established in 1935 and  is one of the seven parks in the country that is facing challenges. Among the challenges faced by the parks, it was gathered are conversion of the forest to plantation by cocoa farmers, illegal lumbering of trees by loggers and hunting of animals, among others.

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April 11, 2022
Illegal Logging: NGO Ask Cross River Government For Details On Trailer With Illegal Timber

A Non-Governmental Organization, Rainforest Resource, and Developmental Center, RRDC, has asked the Cross River State Government to furnish it with a detailed report of a fallen trailer in Ikom, laden with suspected illegal timber.

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April 11, 2022
Nigerian wildlife, forests under severe threat – UN

The United Nations (UN) has declared that Nigerian wildlife and forests are under severe threat with vast amounts of rare tropical woods being illegally extracted and smuggled out of the country. The UN also disclosed that the country has over the past decade evolved into a primary transit hub for the trafficking of wildlife products, including ivory, pangolin scales and other protected species.

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April 7, 2022
Fight Over Illegal Logging Business In Okomu Forest Reserve Turns Area Into Battle Ground

Insight has been thrown into the cause of the protracted battle that now rages in Inikirogha community in Ovia South West L.G.A. in Edo State following an interview granted by the Western Zone scribe of the Ijaw Youth Congress (IYC) Mr Olu Derimo, and published in an online media blog, www.congressng. com on the 28th March 2022. The youth leader attributed the attack on the community to a supremacy battle between Governor Obaseki’s SSA, Mr Godstime Ogidigba, and Mr. Robert Okubo over who controls the illegal logging business in the Okomu Forest Reserve and Okomu National Park.

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March 24, 2022
Deforestation on the rise as poverty soars in Nigeria

Akure-Ofosu Forest Reserve was established to help protect what is now one of largest remaining tracts of rainforest in Nigeria, and is home to many species. But fire and logging is rampant in the reserve, with satellite data showing it lost 44% of its primary forest cover in just two decades; preliminary data indicate deforestation may be increasing further in 2022.

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March 4, 2022
Ayade reads riot act to illegal wood loggers

Cross River State Governor, Prof. Ben Ayade, yesterday vowed that his government would fight illegal wood loggers in the state, whose nefarious activities have led to depletion of the state’s forest reserve. Addressing newsmen in his office in Calabar, the governor threatened to use any political appointee and security agents aiding and abetting illegal logging as scapegoats.

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October 29, 2021
Deforestation soars in Nigeria’s gorilla habitat: ‘We are running out of time’

Afi River Forest Reserve (ARFR), in eastern Nigeria’s Cross River state, is an important habitat corridor that connects imperiled populations of critically endangered Cross River gorillas. But deforestation has been rising both in ARFR and elsewhere in Cross River; satellite data show 2020 was the biggest year for forest loss both in the state and in the reserve since around the turn of the century – and preliminary data for 2021 suggest this year is on track to exceed even 2020.

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October 21, 2021
Alert: Ekuri community confronts illegal logging in their customary forest in Nigeria

The New and Old Ekuri community of the Cross River state in Nigeria are resisting the illegal logging of their forest to pave way for a proposed highway. The ICCA Consortium stands with the Ekuri community and calls for the immediate end of the illegal logging and violation of the community’s rights, including free, prior and informed consent, and continuous undermining of their longstanding efforts to conserve their forest

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September 5, 2021
Trees Also Bleed: Inside the World of Illegal Loggers in Ekiti

In recent times, Nigeria’s forests have decreased steadily due to indiscriminate felling by illegal loggers. Damilola Ayeni travelled to Ekiti, one of the most forested states in Nigeria, to uncover the crime going on under the shade of trees.

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Key Resources
Click here for a collection of Forest Trends publications related to IDAT Risk, including the full set of Timber Legality Risk Country Dashboards.
Methodology
Click here to download the Methodology which includes information on data sources, the methodology used to create risk indicators, and a glossary of key terms.
Data Tools

Click here to access the Global Illegal Logging and Associated Trade (ILAT) Risk assessment tool and to download the Forest Trends User Guide describing the functionality of the ILAT Risk Data Tool.

Click here to access the Cattle Data Tool.

Export Restrictions
Click here to download a database of forest policy export restrictions.