The term “rosewood” is used to designate several hundred species of tropical timber, found across West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. 29 species are officially designated as hongmu (红木) under China’s National Hongmu Standard (2017). The Standard can be legally enforced in relation to product marketing claims, and has played a key role in guiding the choice of materials in rosewood product manufacturing and consumption.
This information brief is intended to serve as a reference for this classification. Hongmu species imported into China, predominately in log or sawnwood form, are classified under the Harmonized System (HS) customs codes 44034980, 44039930, 44072940, and 44079910. A large body of evidence has demonstrated illegalities in rosewood supply chains, including harvesting in contravention of national laws, smuggling, transshipment, and documented links to corruption and conflict. The table below is based on an unofficial translation of the National Hongmu Standard. Specific elements such as species’ common names and geographic range, are non-exhaustive, nor is this intended to be a complete list of all species characterized as “rosewood.”