Nigeria’s production of forest-risk commodities is likely to increase in the future – the population is projected to grow from 206 million in 2020 to 400 million by 2050. More than half will live in urban areas with higher temperatures and more extreme weather events due to climate change. Agriculture in Nigeria constitutes 21 percent of its GDP, 36 percent of its employment, and is dominated by smallholders who own 0.5 hectares (ha) of land on average, many of whom live in poverty. Under these economic and demographic pressures, the forest reserves are at high risk of further encroachment by farmers, herders, loggers, and poachers. Political instability and continued use of forests by armed groups could also drive further deforestation. Forest law enforcement lacks capacity and resources, and there remains a lack of effective coordination between control of the wildlife trade, illegal logging, and sustainable forest management.