East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group
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December 15, 2008


Dear Katoomba Members,

Welcome to the December 2008 edition of the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group e-newsletter.  We take this opportunity to thank you for your excellent feedback to our newsletter throughout the year, and we wish you a Merry Christmas and many happy returns in the New Year.

Our newsletter aims to keep our readers aware of the latest news and events relating to markets and payments for ecosystem services (PES) in the East and Southern Africa region and around the world.

We welcome your feedback, comments and suggestions, including any articles that you may wish to share with our readers. Please send them by e-mail to aruhweza@forest-trends.org

Yours sincerely

Alice Ruhweza
Coordinator, East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group



1. ESA Katoomba News

2. New PES Related News from the Region

3. Other Related News

4. Upcoming Events

5. Resources & Tools

6. New Publications

ESA Katoomba News


Between January 2008 and June 2008, The East and Southern African Katoomba Group embarked on an assessment of: (1) Existing payment for ecosystem service (PES) deals that could be expanded or replicated in other sites, and (2) Promising potential sites for broadening and deepening either: (a) Engagement in environmental markets (most notably international carbon markets) and/or (b) Application of the payments for ecosystem services (PES) in the region.  The assessment was comprised of three primary steps, which included:
•    Updating previous Katoomba Group-commissioned PES inventories, conducted in 2005 and 2006, by revisiting all of the projects to provide a record of performance
•    Documenting details of new PES deals, or previously undocumented projects
•    Identifying promising, potential PES deal sites in the coming years and documenting the rationale for why these sites have potential

Key Findings: The survey catalogued a total of 68 PES and PES-like initiatives split between bio-diversity, carbon, water and other. Of these projects 29 were considered to be new projects or previously undocumented projects. The current set of inventories has revealed the considerable diversity of projects and the different types of payments that are being made across the four countries. The overall findings of the assessment are as follows: -

•    Long gestation period and lack of assurance on projects moving from design to implementation.  There is evidence that some PES projects have not developed beyond the inception phase. The reasons for discontinuation vary, but the lesson is that preliminary work does not promise full, successful implementation.
•    No ‘one size fits all’ approach throughout the region, as the focus of PES projects and approaches varies from country to country. There is strong evidence that regional differentiation exists across the types of projects that are developing in the different countries. For example, in Uganda there is a strong emphasis on carbon while in South Africa there is strong emphasis on water.
•    Few legal and policy changes have been made throughout the region to accommodate PES, however, this has not been a major constraint to the development of pilot level projects.  This finding underscores that legal and policy support, while important particularly with regard to public programs, may be a later issue in the stage of development of PES and therefore should not be the focus o significant resources prior to addressing other obstacles.
•    Lack of clarity on trends in terms of total number of PES projects in region. The inventories were inconclusive on whether there has been a real increase in growth in the numbers of PES projects since the last inventory, due in part to adaptations in methodologies and definitions applied in the two assessments as well as different personnel undertaking the studies.
•    Demand for carbon credits is growing, however organising sellers and being able to provide the “quality of credits” that meet the buyer’s requirements is still a problem. Most buyers want certification to certain industry standards (VCS, CCBS etc) that sellers cannot afford.
One of the crosscutting issues is that for many PES deals, there is little evidence to support the ecosystem service that is being ‘sold’ as truly providing the services for which buyers are paying.  The reasons are linked to both ecological challenges associated with monitoring, as well as the reality that there is very little robust monitoring and evaluation underway with existing PES projects.

Way Forward: The recently launched Katoomba PES Incubator creates an opportunity for the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group to transition from a purely learning forum into a more pro-active approach in which it provides support directly to projects. Secondly, the rapidly developing REDD also provides the group with a massive opportunity in the near future to be a nexus of information exchange, learning and a disseminator of best-practice.

  – For more information and to view the country assessments please visit


New PES Related News from the Region


Report by Wikus Kruger http://www.hedon.info/1258/news.htm

Cape Town, South Africa, played host to the second annual Carbon Markets Africa conference on the 18th and 19th of November 2008, which was attended by over 100 representatives from a wide range of sectors, industries and nationalities representing a wealth of knowledge, experience, funds and interest. Attendance had tripled since the 2007 conference, showing strong growth in interest around African carbon markets.

Over the course of the conference, the state (and fate) of the African carbon market was investigated from the perspectives of project developers, traders, brokers, buyers, financiers and public institutions.. Bureaucratic, policy and regulatory reasons were most often cited as impeding CDM development in Africa, along with a serious lack of capacity, especially at DOE (Designated Operational Entity) level. A strong theme that emerged from both day 1 and 2 was however that the demand (and support) for African carbon projects/credits are very high. This not only translates into a premium for African carbon credits, but funding and support for these projects are also available from very early stages in the project cycle. From the discussion around programmatic CDM, which is seen as one of the main instruments that will increase the viability of small-scale projects (the dominant type in Africa), it became clear that this instrument has (as yet) been unable to deliver on this promise, leaving small-scale project developers with little choice but to enter the voluntary market.

The (voluntary) segment of the carbon market was also discussed in some detail on Day 2, with particular attention being paid to forestry projects. Forestry is seen as the sector with the highest potential for Africa in terms of carbon finance, yet it remains as yet largely untapped due to a number of uncertainties in market, coupled with negative buyer sentiment. Looking at the future of forestry in the CDM (especially post-2012), this is the sector that is most likely to have a significant impact on the rest of the carbon market.

The state of the carbon market post-2012 was discussed at length throughout the conference, with little clarity emerging on what market participants might expect from this period. However, it seems safe to assume that the Least Developed Countries (LDC’s) are likely to continue benefitting from a CDM-like mechanism, while developing countries such as South Africa, Brazil, India and China may quite possibly form a 3rd grouping of nations (in addition to the current Annex-I/Non-Annex-I categories), possibly with some compliance targets. What was also frequently emphasised is that Africa, as a negotiating bloc, needs to push for reforms (such as the scrapping of the Grid Emissions Factor as baseline for another, more equitable measure) that will enable to continent to realise its carbon market potential. It seems that Africa is only now waking up to the reality of the carbon market, with projects emerging from all parts of the continent; it however remains the continent with the highest potential and lowest market participation, clearly indicating the need for greater cooperation, capacity building and support.

The conference was preceded on Monday the 17th by a project developer-coaching seminar, which focused primarily on developing successful CDM projects. The seminar addressed issues around market entry barriers, project finance, legal implications, trading, validation & verification as well as issues directly related to the South African Designated National Authority (DNA). An important theme to emerge from the seminar (and which was highlighted throughout the conference) is that more cooperation is needed in Africa around CDM to allow for mutual learning and lobbying, specifically when it comes to up-coming climate change negotiations.

  – For more details on this story visit



Source: All Africa.com; 14 September 2008

A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Rwanda Multisector Investment Group and a Canadian-based carbon offset development company, ERA Ecosystem Restoration Associates, Inc. In the MoU, ERA agreed with MIG, a Rwandan-based investment company set up to support small to medium sized enterprises in the Southwestern part of Rwanda that MIG will be the local implementer of all the projects undertaken by the Canadian company.

ERA wants to conduct forest-based offset programmes in Rwanda’s deforested areas. ERA says that it is specialized in forest-based carbon offset development and it has been doing it in places like Canada's British Columbia Province and Latin America's Ecuador. "Now the company wants to invest millions of dollars in Rwanda in afforestation and reforestation works if the government agrees," says its Chief Operations Officer, Eng. Bart Simmons. He explained that the company wants to encourage people to plant trees by paying them for the trees they plant and paying them climate saving compensations from the money provided by giant global firms polluting the air, based especially in North America and Europe. The input of the planted trees can be quantified into the rate of carbon emissions they reduce and the owners paid money for it.” The main thing in that is to try to create an economic driver for the people on the grounds, the small land owners not to go in and create the destructions or degradation on the park but to create other economical activities," he continued.

Mr. Simmons revealed that ERA would invest over US$ 1,000,000 in the activities beginning by the end of this year and the beginning of next year if they sign a carbon offset framework agreement with the government of Rwanda. Then they will be investing about US$ 800,000 in the activities every year for a period of twenty years.

"I have to say that we need such a programme in many areas of Rwanda especially in those areas that used to be forests' banks, that used to provide water for rivers, and to ensure that they are re-protected," said Chairman of MIG, Central Bank Governor François Kanimba, as he commended the Canadian company's initiatives.

Rwanda is the first country in Africa in which ERA Ecosystem Restoration Associates, Inc. is trying to extend its services. The move is seen as both an economic investment and an environmental conservation initiative in the country, according to Emmanuel Muhawenimana, the representative of Rwanda Investment and Export Promotion Agency (RIEPA) in Canada.

  – For more details on this story visit



Source: Reuters News; 21 November 2008,

Clean energy project developer Trading Emissions Plc agreed to buy 1 million tonnes of U.N.-approved carbon dioxide (CO2) offsets from a municipality in South Africa. The offsets, called Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs), represent cuts in greenhouse gases made by a landfill gas project in eThekwini Municipality under a United Nations Kyoto Protocol emissions trading scheme. UK-based Trading Emissions Plc (TEP) plans to buy the CERs through to 2012, the year that Kyoto's first commitment period expires, though it would not confirm at what price.

The project captures methane and other emissions from a landfill and burns them to generate up to 8 megawatts of energy. According to U.N. data, the project is expected to cut the equivalent of 1.8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. TEP said in a statement the eThekwini project is in the final stages of the U.N.'s project registration process, with registration anticipated during 2009. "eThekwini is an important project, it is operational, it has a long future and we anticipate registration shortly," said Simon Shaw, investment advisor to TEP.

South Africa has just 14 projects registered by the U.N., with another 13 at the project validation phase. These represent around one third of all projects in Africa, though the continent accounts for only two percent of CDM projects globally. As a result, and due to greater political risk than other countries, companies have said they are more reluctant to invest in African CDM projects. It comes as no surprise therefore, that consultants PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) [PWC.UL] announced that they were halting operations as a project auditor in South Africa under the Kyoto scheme, citing the country's small market size as one of the reasons. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) has been acting as a Designated Operational Entity (DOE) in South Africa under the Clean Development Mechanism programme. DOEs are independent auditors that assess whether a project meets requirements under the CDM and whether it has achieved reductions in greenhouse gases. "The CDM market in South Africa remains fairly small and, compounded by the firm's own restrictions with regard to cross-border work, this excludes PwC from engaging on CDM projects in countries outside of South African jurisdiction," the company said in a statement.

  – For more details on this story visit




The Africa Bio-Carbon (ABC) Initiative, a project of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) seeks to develop strategies and models for bio-carbon sequestration projects in Africa. By tapping into the ability of biota and soils to act as a carbon sink – sequestering greenhouse gases potentially released by land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) – bio-carbon sequestration projects offer exciting opportunities for linking a number of interconnected objectives. Using the African sites in UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) as platforms for demonstrating and propagating innovative sustainable practices, the ABC Initiative fulfils the principal mandate of the Madrid Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves, combining the climate change adaptation and mitigation goals of the UNFCCC, the biodiversity conservation goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the poverty reduction and sustainable development targets of the Millennium Development Goals. UNESCO Biosphere Reserves

UNESCO Biosphere Reserves are places uniquely suited to pioneering initiatives for climate change mitigation and adaptation. In the context of climate change action, the core area provides a conservation area that sequesters carbon and serves as a living laboratory for observing the effects of global climate change on ecosystems. The buffer zone is an area appropriate for reforestation, ecological restoration projects, and other LULUCF schemes. Finally, the transition zone can nurture innovations in agriculture and energy technologies as well as afforestation and reforestation projects that sequester carbon, help local populations adapt to climate change, and promote the preservation of biodiversity and the sustainable development of local communities. For those ‘pre-Seville’ African biosphere reserves that have yet to adopt a three-zone system, the ABC Initiative presents an opportunity to refine their biosphere reserve status in order to integrate them into climate change strategies and enhance their contributions to sustainable development. Models for climate change mitigation and adaptation developed in African biosphere reserves can be disseminated beyond reserve boundaries in host countries and their neighbors,

Over its first six (6) months, the ABC Initiative will carry out a survey of African carbon markets and biosphere reserves. This survey will seek to identify bio-carbon sequestration opportunities and obstacles and to develop implementation strategies that overcome barriers to market participation and build local capacity to initiate and manage bio-carbon projects. The results of this initial phase of research will be summarized in a strategy paper and may also give rise to several distinct project proposals. On a more specific level, the Initiative will summarize bio-carbon sequestration in its various forms (e.g., green charcoal production, reforestation, REDD) as a climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy, and provide a general overview and specific cases of current African bio-carbon projects.

At the end of this initial phase, the groundwork will be laid for the selection and execution of a series of experimental bio-carbon projects in African biosphere reserves, with the expectation that successful projects will not only benefit the local communities and ecosystems, but will also serve as models for combating climate change in a way that protects biodiversity and promotes the sustainable development of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable populations.

  – For more details on the initiative, download background document at


Other Related News


Carbon credit politics and misplaced technical concerns are impeding efforts to encourage sustainable land use practices in tropical regions—such as better forest management and growing more trees on farms—that could curtail up to 20 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions while also boosting incomes of the rural poor, according to a new analysis by the Nairobi-based World Agroforestry Centre. The analysis which was presented in Poznán, Poland at the Conference of the Parties (COP 14) shows that Kenyan farmers who plant an average of 500 fodder trees that provide high-quality livestock feed increase their farm income by $95 to $120 per cow per year. Fodder trees, and other forms of Agroforestry, typically take two to five years to produce a return on investment. Allowing African farmers to sell the carbon trapped by those fodder trees would make the move to agroforestry more financially attractive. ICRAF asserts that allowing farmers to sell that carbon on global carbon markets could generate as much as $10 billion each year for poor people in rural areas.

The World Agroforestry Centre—also known as ICRAF—advised the COP Meeting  that efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, or REDD, are being unfairly stymied by the fear that officially acknowledging the carbon-saving capacity of forestry and agroforestry would “flood the market” with inexpensive carbon credits. The European Commission recently recommended against allowing credits for forests in general, though it is not clear what its position will be on agroforestry. The United Kingdom and Norway have been more receptive to the idea of linking developing country forests to carbon markets, as have some influential policy makers in the United States. Influential non-governmental organizations are generally favorable to the inclusion of forestry in future climate regimes, but raise valid concerns about their potential to undermine efforts to devolve rights to forest-dependent people.

ICRAF’s analysis notes that there are some “legitimate technical concerns” to assigning carbon credits to forest conservation or the conversion of traditional croplands to agroforestry systems. But ICRAF also contends that the technical challenges are being resolved, and should not be used as an excuse to exclude low-cost opportunities for emissions reduction and emissions offsets that would benefit the poor. For example, ICRAF has worked with partners to develop a system that uses satellite technology and other approaches to calculate and verify the carbon stored across millions of square kilometers of agricultural land and forests in developing countries. ICRAF also notes that incorporating agroforestry into carbon trading markets offers economic benefits to both industrial countries and poor farmers. For industrial countries, it offers a potentially cost-effective approach to offsetting their carbon emissions. In addition, a new policy brief by the ICRAF-led Alternatives to Slash and Burn (ASB) Partnership for Tropical Forest Margins shows that agroforestry can help farmers and rural communities to achieve carbon-conserving development. ASB findings reveal that agroforestry systems can store up to 40 percent as much carbon as primary forests, while generating good returns to farmers. Agroforestry development can also reduce pressure to convert primary forests into agriculture, according to ASB. ICRAF also points out that, overall, placing a monetary value on the carbon stored in forest-rich landscapes has the added benefit of reducing the incentive for practicing destructive land use practices, such as slash and burn agriculture and clear cutting, which waste huge volumes of carbon with little social returns. The right mix of financial and other policy incentives could convince land users to adopt agroforestry systems that not only conserve and sequester carbon but also yield financial returns to poor farmers.

  – For more details on this story visit



Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) was announced on 10th November 2008 as the first verifier to be approved under the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) temporary accreditation program. SCS can now perform VCS validations and verifications for a period of 12 months while it pursues full accreditation under ISO.
The VCS verifier temporary accreditation program has been designed by the VCS Board as a rigorous and “fast-track” solution to the global verifier shortage. This shortage has been caused by the increase in the number of emissions reduction projects worldwide and delays in the approval of new verifiers under UNFCCC and ISO systems. This has led to long delays in project approval processes and verification costs of up to three times normal markets rates. The shortage has been hardest felt in North America, but is impacting markets across the globe, particularly South Africa, India and China.

The VCS accreditation program complements both UNFCCC and ISO systems. It provides a streamlined process to temporarily accredit verifiers who are in the process of going though an UNFCCC or ISO accreditation. Verifiers can be accredited for up to 12 months under the VCS and by the end of that period must be approved under UNFCCC or ISO systems. Those who fail to meet these standards will have their work reviewed by the VCS Association and are financially liable for any over-issuance of credits.

David Antonioli, the newly appointed VCS Association CEO says: “The shortage of verifiers is creating a bottleneck in both the project approval and credit issuance processes, and unnecessarily increasing costs for participants. In the current climate, the market needs a streamlined way to increase the number of qualified verifiers while the ISO and UNFCCC systems build capacity. This is what the new VCS “fast-track” approach to verification does.”

SCS, established in 1984 and accredited as one of the first Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)- endorsed certification bodies in 1995, is a global leader in forest management and wood products certification. Their diverse set of certification and verification services provides forestry operators and manufacturers with a full range of quality services.

The Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) is already the most popular global standard in the voluntary carbon market. Market analysts estimate that the voluntary carbon market could offset 400 million tonnes of emissions by 2012. Addressing the verifier shortage is fundamental to realizing this growth. Approximately ten verification firms are currently going through the temporary accreditation process and more announcements are expected before the end of the year.

  – For more details on this story visit



The Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) recently launched a new carbon standard for agriculture, forestry and land use at the London Stock Exchange. It is being touted as the first time a standardized approach has included land use projects including forestry and agriculture and made them accessible to all market players in the $330 million voluntary carbon market. VCS rules allow agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) projects to generate carbon credits that are interchangeable with other carbon credits generated by non-AFOLU activities such as energy and industrial projects. The VCS rules were developed over an 18-month period and included consultation with industry, NGOs and market specialists. The new standard is backed by the Climate Group, the International Emissions Trading Association and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

  – For more details on this story visit


Upcoming Events


This event will provide an insight into the industry a year on. Has the voluntary market achieved credibility and transparency through the establishment of several standards, registries and other market mechanisms? The event will also take a close look at the new demands consumers are putting on their offset partners of choice and what companies are doing to communicate their carbon neutral activities to their target audience.

  – For more details visit


Resources & Tools


A slew of new tools, methodologies, and reports designed to support the markets for forest carbon were unveiled on Forest Day at the 14th UN Carbon Conference in Poznan – including initiatives from the Katoomba Group’s Ecosystem Marketplace, Avoided Deforestation Partners, and the Climate, Community, and Biodiversity Alliance. The list of tools is summarized below – more details can be found at http://ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/article.news.php?component_id=6353&component_version_id=9483&language_id=12

Forestcarbonportal.com: Tracking Terrestrial Carbon

The Katoomba Group’s Ecosystem Marketplace launched ForestCarbonPortal.com, an online information clearinghouse for the terrestrial carbon markets. This satellite website to EcosystemMarkeplace.com includes daily news posts, original articles, a calendar of events, and a "tool box" of the latest intro guides, methodologies, software measurement tools and beyond. The site will also map projects selling land based carbon credits across the globe. Users can search for project sites by region, as well as by a variety of criteria such as project type, standard, registry, and credit prices. Projects are described in consistent 'nutrition labels' listing a range of criteria. Any developers interested in making sure their project makes the list should contact Maria Bendana at mbendana (at) forest-trends.org.

Using Modules to Build Your Own VCS Methodology

Another initiative soft-launched in Poznan is a proposed set of modules and accompanying "instruction manual" that project developers can use to develop REDD methodologies under the Voluntary Carbon Standard's new rules for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). Led by Avoided Deforestation Partners and funded by an array of NGOs and philanthropic organizations, the effort began at the Carbon Expo in Cologne, Germany, and involved consultation with some of the most experienced project developers in the industry. The modules themselves are designed to harvest the lessons of past experience to serve as building blocks of a project methodology – which is the first major step in project development, and one that often consumes hundreds of thousands of dollars in research and planning. Under the current system, every project developer creates its own, highly specific (and costly) methodology. Proponents of the modular approach believe it will streamline project development dramatically – but also warn that developing a project methodology is a bit more difficult than assembling a prefab doll house. The draft version of both the modules and the decision support tool are being circulated among experts now, and a revised version will be made available for public comment in January – at which point you can expect to see a more detailed analysis on Ecosystem Marketplace.

On a similar note, Terra Global Capital also announced a new VCS methodology for avoided deforestation, which we will be covering in more depth later this month.

CCBA: Raising the Gold Bar

The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) also made a splash on Forest Day, unveiling the second edition of its CCB Standard – which provides an overlay of social and biodiversity criteria to verify the 'gourmet' portion of existing carbon standards. CCB 2.0 strengthens and clarifies a variety of criteria covered in the first edition, most importantly beefing up provisions for ensuring that the legal ownership of the carbon is clear and that the rightful owners consent to the project being undertaken.  The new edition also updates criteria needed to gain 'Gold Level' certification, requiring that such projects not only demonstrate exceptional community and biodiversity benefits, but also generate adaptation benefits.

UNEP's Atlas: Finding the Frogs in the Trees

Also launched on forest day is the new Carbon and Biodiversity Demonstration Atlas launched jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the German government, and the Humane Society. This tool makes it easier to see which forests have how much carbon and how much biodiversity – and might thus be the most important to preserve environmentally and, theoretically, economically as well.

Little REDD Book

The Global Canopy Programme's Little REDD Book, is a handy, 112-page primer on the Kyoto debates on REDD. Instead of trying to explain the concept from A to Z, it provides easy-to-read summaries of seminal positions on REDD put forth by various governments and NGOs, as well as links to detailed position papers. Not surprisingly, it closes with a reference to PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital), Global Canopy's own acronym for the fledgling practice of investing in areas of tremendous environmental wealth but no regulatory drivers. The concept is betting that our economy will evolve to the point of recognizing the economic benefits of ecosystem services and rewarding those who preserve them. PINC advocates aren't waiting for regulatory drivers to create demand for ecosystem service payments, but are investing in fragile ecosystems now.

Carbonflow™ and Carbon Step™

Carbon Step™ is a comprehensive software solution that automates the verification, delivery and distribution of GHG or CO2e offset credits for renewable energy and energy efficiency based programs. CarbonFlow aims to help project developers streamline and simplify the process of developing projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The Carbonflow™ Suite boosts the credibility of the carbon market through increasing standards, transparency, and scale. The resulting benefits are fewer delays and dramatically lower administrative costs = better returns on investment for your GHG projects. Validation and verification automation = scale in carbon markets and higher credibility for your credits. Process independence, transparency and credibility = higher carbon credit prices for you. Project developers speaking at the side event to launch the tool in Poznan expressed hope that the new tool could potentially save project developers and independent third party verifiers millions of dollars, hundreds of man hours, and reams of paperwork. For details see http://www.carbonflow.com


New Publications


A new white paper from the global management consultancy Arthur D. Little looks at the future of carbon markets post-2012.  "Carbon Futures" seeks to map a path forward for tomorrow's carbon winners by considering market scenarios and how these will impact business post 2012. For many businesses, carbon trading can and will have a significant influence on the top and bottom lines. Beyond 2012 however, this issue will be driven by intergovernmental negotiation and emerging legislation. What should executives with responsibility for investment outcomes post-2012 be doing now to ensure they maximize competitiveness and minimize risk?. Arthur D. Little's report highlights the importance of understanding possible policy outcomes and developing a carbon strategy with the flexibility to take them all into account. Key variables for businesses to consider include what potential costs are likely to be incurred, what opportunities can be harnessed to increase revenue, and how companies can learn and improve from experience with the issue.

  – To download the paper visit




We invite you to look at the Katoomba Group’s other newsletters.